ḤAYYIM BEN JEHIEL ḤEFEẒ ZAHAV (13th century), German talmudist. Ḥayyim studied under his father and under samuel of evreux . Many of his responsa are included in the responsa of meir b. baruch of Rothenburg (ed. by M. Bloch, 1895, nos. 188–9, 209, 241, 249, 296–8, 339–41, 355–6, 382–3, 461–3). In a responsum (no. 241) he affirms that he filled the post of "emissary of Kolonia," probably Cologne. It has been therefore assumed by some that he was a member of the Cologne bet din and represented the community before the government. He was probably given the appellation "Ḥefeẓ Zahav" because of his book bearing this title, but from the endings of many of the responsa (nos. 189, 241, 339) it can also be deduced that his father was the author of the book. It appears that Ḥayyim was a colleague of Samuel b. Menahem, the teacher of Meir of Rothenburg, since in one responsum (no. 188) he refers to him as "my associate." This Ḥayyim is not to be identified with Ḥayyim b. Jehiel, the brother of asher b. jehiel . -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Michael, Or, no. 876; H. Gross, in: MGWJ, 34 (1885), 313f.; Germ Jud, 1 (1934), 151, 484; 2 (1968), index; I. Agus, Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg, 1 (1947), xxvi, 106, 129, 131, 146–8, 160f. (Yehoshua Horowitz) ḤAYYIM BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA ḤAYYIM BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA (14th century), talmudic scholar of Tudela, Spain. Ḥayyim was a pupil of solomon b. abraham adret , and the latter's responsa contain a number addressed to Ḥayyim. For some time Ḥayyim was in France, where he studied under perez b. elijah . His main work is the Ẓeror ha-Ḥayyim (published in 1966), consisting of the laws appertaining to blessings, prayer, Sabbaths, and festivals, arranged according to the order of the calendar; it is based on views of various French, Provençal, and Spanish scholars but chiefly upon his teachers, Adret and Perez, though he does not mention them by name. His other work, Ẓeror ha-Kesef, on topics in Hoshen Mishpat, is still in manuscript. These books (referred to by the rishonim as the Ẓerorot, "bundles") were in the possession of later scholars (but cf. Resp. Ribash, no. 396), who made use of and quoted them. This was particularly so in the case of the 16th-century Safed scholars, including joseph caro . In this work, Ḥayyim alludes to a book of sermons he wrote, and Masud Ḥai Roke'aḥ, at the beginning of his Ma'aseh Roke'aaḥ (Venice, 1742), quotes Ḥayyim's commentary to the tractate Mo'ed Katan, which is also cited by bezalel ashkenazi in Kelalei ha-Shas (in Ms.). Among Ḥayyim's relations was Joseph ha-Dayyan, referred to respectfully several times in the responsa of Isaac b. Sheshet (Ribash). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Michael, Or, no. 904; S.H. Yerushalmi, Mavole-Sefer Ẓeror ha-Ḥayyim (1966). (Israel Moses Ta-Shma)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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